Paper Tiger: The Context

Paper Tiger

In this article, a definitive look at what philosophers, theologians, psychologists, and scientists throughout history have thought regarding confronting and conquering one’s fears, as well as how this can impact one’s happiness and well-being.

Modern Philosophy, Psychology, & Science

Modern psychology and neuroscience research suggest that confronting and overcoming fear can lead to increased resilience, emotional regulation, and improved mental health outcomes. Exposure therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to be effective treatments for various anxiety disorders. These therapies can help individuals develop coping strategies, reframe negative thoughts, and cultivate a sense of acceptance and self-compassion.

In modern philosophy, confronting and conquering fear is seen as a way to develop resilience, self-confidence, and personal growth. Philosophers such as Jean-Paul Sartre and Martin Heidegger have emphasized the importance of facing the anxiety and uncertainty of existence as a means of achieving authenticity and self-realization. Positive psychology also emphasizes the importance of confronting and overcoming fear in order to achieve greater well-being and happiness.

Axial Philosophies Overall

The Axial Philosophies, which emerged in the first millennium BCE, proposed various strategies for confronting and conquering one's fears to achieve happiness and well-being. For example, in the teachings of Confucianism, cultivating inner strength and moral character through education and self-discipline was seen as a way to overcome fear. In Buddhism, meditation and mindfulness practices were used to cultivate equanimity and acceptance of one's fears. The Stoics, meanwhile, recommended facing one's fears head-on and reframing them as opportunities for growth and self-improvement. Ultimately, the Axial Philosophies recognized that confronting and conquering one's fears was a crucial component of achieving a fulfilling and meaningful life.

Confucianism & Daoism

Confucianism and Daoism both provide guidance on confronting and overcoming fears. Confucianism emphasizes the cultivation of moral character through education and self-discipline as a means to overcome fear. Daoism, on the other hand, emphasizes acceptance and going with the flow of life, encouraging individuals to detach from their fears and desires. Both philosophies recognize the importance of confronting fears in order to achieve personal growth and happiness.

Hinduism & Buddhism

In Hinduism, fear is seen as a hindrance to spiritual growth and liberation. The path to overcoming fear involves developing devotion, self-surrender, and detachment from material desires, leading to a state of inner peace and tranquility. The Bhagavad Gita, a central text in Hinduism, teaches that fear arises from attachment to the outcomes of one's actions and advises individuals to act selflessly and without attachment to results. Conquering fear is seen as a way to achieve a state of oneness with the divine and ultimately attain liberation from the cycle of birth and death.

Equally in Buddhism, fear is seen as a form of suffering and a hindrance to spiritual progress. Mindfulness meditation and the practice of detachment are key strategies for overcoming fear. The Four Noble Truths teach that fear and suffering arise from craving and attachment, and that the path to liberation involves cultivating detachment and compassion. The Noble Eightfold Path includes practices such as right mindfulness and right concentration, which help individuals develop the awareness and equanimity necessary to face their fears and overcome them.

Traditional Western Philosophy & Stoics

The Stoics, a school of thought in traditional Western philosophy, advocated for confronting fears and reframing them as opportunities for growth and self-improvement. The Stoics believed that by practicing reason, virtue, and self-control, individuals could overcome their fears and achieve a state of inner peace and tranquility. Conquering fears was seen as a way to develop courage, resilience, and wisdom, and to live a life of purpose and meaning.

Christianity, Judaism, Islam

In Christianity, confronting and overcoming fear is often framed as an act of faith and trust in God. The Bible teaches that fear is a natural human emotion but also reminds individuals to put their trust in God and to seek comfort and guidance through prayer. The teachings of Jesus also emphasize the importance of loving one's neighbor and serving others as a way to overcome fear and find purpose and meaning in life.

Similarly in Judaism, fear is seen as a natural human emotion that can be a source of strength or a hindrance to spiritual growth. The Jewish tradition teaches that faith in God and the practice of mitzvot, or good deeds, can help individuals overcome fear and anxiety. The concept of bitachon, or trust in God, is also central to Jewish teachings on fear and anxiety. By placing their trust in God, individuals can find a sense of inner peace and security, even in the face of adversity.

Islam mirrors the above. Fear is seen as a natural human emotion that can be a source of motivation or a hindrance to spiritual growth. The Quran teaches that fear and anxiety can be overcome through faith and trust in God, and that individuals should rely on God's guidance and mercy in times of difficulty. The practice of tawakkul, or reliance on God, is also emphasized as a means of overcoming fear and finding inner peace and tranquility.


  1. Dalai Lama & Cutler, H. C. (1998). The art of happiness: A handbook for living. Riverhead Books.
  2. Easwaran, E. (2007). The Bhagavad Gita (2nd ed.). Nilgiri Press.
  3. Gilbert, P., & Leahy, R. L. (Eds.). (2007). The therapeutic relationship in the cognitive behavioral psychotherapies. Routledge.
  4. Haidt, J. (2012). The righteous mind: Why good people are divided by politics and religion. Vintage.
  5. Hofmann, S. G., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I. J. J., Sawyer, A. T., & Fang, A. (2012). The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36(5), 427-440.
  6. Irvine, W. B. (2008). A guide to the good life: The ancient art of Stoic joy. Oxford University Press.
  7. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 144-156.
  8. Liu, J., & Xu, Y. (2018). Confucianism and Daoism. In The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy in Early Modern China (pp. 14-25). Oxford University Press.
  9. Telushkin, J. (2014). Jewish wisdom: The essential teachings of the Jewish religion. HarperCollins.
  10. The Holy Bible, New International Version. (2011). Zondervan.
  11. The Quran. (1997). Translation and commentary by Abdullah Yusuf Ali. Islamic Book Trust.